Bramblings (Fringilla montifringilla) breed in the forests of Russia and Scandinavia. As from September, they migrate south in the millions in search of beech nuts.
Migrating birds have lots to contend with. Physical objects such as television and mobile phone transmission towers obstruct their flight. But more insidiously, the effects of climate change can alter birds’ delicate seasonal clocks.
Warming temperatures in many regions also change plant growth patterns, throwing biological cycles out of sync. Nothing operates in isolation. Climate change can disrupt relationships and the timing of critical life events.
Given the expected decline of European beech due to climate change-induced drying, beech trees are expected to disappear in these low-elevation forests.
What then will these birds eat?